A Generational Perspective of the Determinants of Work-Life Balance of Secondary School Teachers in Gingoog City Division: Basis for a Teacher Wellness Initiative

  • Hilrem L. Bayucot Faculty, Junior High School Department, Pundasan National High School, DepEd Gingoog City, Philippines
  • Levita B. Grana Faculty, Graduate School, Saint Joseph Institute of Technology, Butuan City, Philippines
Keywords: work-life balance, high school teachers, teachers’ wellness program, Philippines


The education sector is increasingly recognizing the significance of teachers' well-being and the impact of a healthy work-life balance on organizational success. This study focused on identifying factors influencing the quality of Work-Life Balance (WLB) among secondary school teachers in 14 schools in Gingoog City Division. The research employed a sequential explanatory mixed-method approach, gathering both numerical and qualitative data from 283 teachers. The results indicated that millennial educators reported the highest satisfaction, tested at 0.05 level, with their WLB, followed by Generation X, Gen Z, and Boomer teachers. The study identified six key factors influencing WLB, with career progression emerging as a common predictor across all generations. Additionally, financial condition was a significant factor for boomers, autonomy and financial condition for Generation X teachers, financial condition and technological literacy for millennial teachers, and technological literacy, social support, and autonomy for Gen Z teachers. The research also unveiled facilitating factors such as work-life balance principles, workload management strategies, preferences for school support systems, and self-care practices. Conversely, hindering factors included workload pressures and time management challenges, difficulties in the work environment, and frustrations related to DepEd policies. Based on these findings, a Teachers Wellness Program is proposed to be incorporated in the Enhanced School Improvement Plan (ESIP) to promote the WLB of teachers across different generational cohorts.


Download data is not yet available.


About Ambisyon Natin 2040. AmBisyon Natin 2040. (2017). https://2040.neda.gov.ph/about-ambisyon-natin-2040

Alexander, C. S., & Sysko, J. M. (2014). I'm Gen Y, I love feeling entitled, and it shows. Academy of Educational Leadership Journal, 17(4), 127.

Al-Jenaibi, B. (2015, June 30). Digital Media Platforms and Education: The Uses. https://doi.org/10.17349/jmc115203

Alonge, H O., & Osagiobare, E O. (2020, September 30). Single-Parent Teachers’ Work-Life Balance and Job Productivity in Edo State Public Senior Secondary Schools. https://doi.org/10.31014/aior.1993.03.03.143

Arceta, K. B. (2020, August 30). Assessing the Relationship Between Job Demands, Job Resources, Burnout, Work Engagement, and Work-Life Balance Among Teachers in a Secondary Public School. https://doi.org/10.26803/ijhss.12.4.3

Avolio, B., Charles, V., & Bautista, M. L. A. (2023, February 6). Inter‐domain role transitions and work‐family life balance: The mediating effect of integration and segmentation preferences. https://doi.org/10.1002/joe.22199

Balasabas, N. (2022, January 26). Quality of Work Life of Public Secondary School Teachers in Far-Flung Areas: A Mixed Methods Study. 9(1), 10-25. https://www.noveltyjournals.com/upload/paper/Quality%20of%20Work%20Life-26012022-3.pdf

Balmforth, K., & Gardner, D. (2006). Conflict and facilitation between work and family: Realizing the outcomes for organizations. New Zealand Journal of Psychology, 35(2).

Ching, P L., Chua, B S., & Ismail, R. (2021). The Role of Hindrance Stressor and Distress in Teachers’ Work-Life Balance. https://doi.org/10.2991/assehr.k.210423.025

Clark, S. C. (2000). Work/family border theory: A new theory of work/family balance. Human relations, 53(6), 747-770.

Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines. (1987, February 11). Article II, Section 15. Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines.

DepEd Order 2 (2024). Immediate Removal of Administrative Tasks of Public School Teachers

DepEd Order 42 (2007). Revised Guidelines on Selection, Promotion and Designation of School Heads

DepEd Order 42 (2017). Philippine Professional Standard for Teachers (PPST)

DepEd Order 66 (2007). Revised Guidelines on The Appointment and Promotion of Other Teaching, Related Teaching and Non-Teaching Positions

DepEd Order 7 (2023). Guidelines on Recruitment, Selection, and Appointment in the Department of Education

DepEd Order 8 (2023). Participation of Teachers in Volunteer Work and Extra-Curricular Activities

Ferguson, K., Mang, C F., & Frost, L. (2017, October 23). Teacher Stress and Social Support Usage. https://doi.org/10.26522/brocked.v26i2.606

García-Salirrosas, E.E., & Rondon-Eusebio, R.F. (2023). Impact of Labor Autonomy and Work-Life Balance on Job Satisfaction in Teleworking. Proceedings of the 2023 7th International Conference on E-Commerce, E-Business and E-Government.

Googins, R. (1997). 1. Reflections on Delinquency. Delinquent Violent Youth: Theory and Interventions, 1.

Handtke, O., Günther, L. V., & Mösko, M. (2022). Assessing the psychosocial work environment of migrant and non-migrant workers in inpatient mental health centres: A feasibility study. Plos One, 17(9), e0275003. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0275003

Hershatter, A., & Epstein, M. (2010). Millennials and the world of work: An organization and management perspective. Journal of business and psychology, 25, 211-223.

Johari, J., Yean, T. F., & Zulkarnain, Z. I. T. (2018, January 8). Autonomy, workload, work-life balance and job performance among teachers. https://scite.ai/reports/10.1108/ijem-10-2016-0226

Kashyap, V., Nakra, N., & Arora, R. (2021, March 4). Do “decent work” dimensions lead to work engagement? Empirical evidence from higher education institutions in India. https://scite.ai/reports/10.1108/ejtd-08-2020-0127

Lear, M., & Nabo, C. (2023, June 15). Work-Life Balance among Faculty in Selected Higher Education Institutions (HEIS) in the Philippines. https://doi.org/https://www.researchgate.net/publication/371881117_Work-Life_Balance_among_Faculty_in_Selected_Higher_Education_Institutions_HEIS_in_the_Philippines

Lupu, I. & Ruiz-Castro, M. (2021) "Work-Life Balance Is a Cycle, Not an Achievement," Harvard Business Review.

Mason, J. (2002). Researching your own practice: The discipline of noticing. Routledge

Meuris, J., & Leana, C. R. (2015). The high cost of low wages: Economic scarcity effects in organizations. Research in Organizational Behavior, 35, 143-158.

Min, D. (2022, July 29). Effects of resilience, burnout, and work-related physical pain on work-life balance of registered nurses in South Korean nursing homes: A cross-sectional study. Medicine, 101(30), e29889. https://doi.org/10.1097/md.0000000000029889

Mukhtar, F., Shahid, M., & Khokhar, S.G. (2022). Impact of Financial Condition on Work Life Balance and New Knowledge Acquisition: A Case of Pakistan. Academic Journal of Social Sciences (AJSS).

Najam, U., Burki, U., & Khalid, W. (2020). Does Work-Life Balance Moderate the Relationship between Career Commitment and Career Success? Evidence from an Emerging Asian Economy. Administrative Sciences

Nam, T. (2014). Technology Use and Work-Life Balance. Applied Research in Quality of Life, 9, 1017-1040.

Noble-Nkrumah, F., Anyigba, H., & Mensah, H. K. (2022, March 16). Psychological contract fulfilment and work behaviour nexus: the interactive effects of employee job autonomy and trust. https://scite.ai/reports/10.1108/md-11-2020-1493

Özkaya, M B., & Alakurt, T. (2022, January 1). Teachers’ Attitudes Towards Distance Education After The Emergency Remote Teaching Period. https://doi.org/10.29228/smryj.63405

Pasla, P. R., Asepta, U. Y., Widyaningrum, S., Pramesti, M., & Wicaksono, S. R. (2021). The Effect of Work from Home and Work Load on Work-Life Balance of Generation X and Generation Y Employees. Journal of Economics, Finance and Accounting Studies. https://doi.org/10.32996/jefas.2021.3.2.21

Pradhan, G. (2016). Conceptualizing work-life balance. Institute for Social and Economic Change.

Prihadini, D., Nurbaity, S., Rachmadi, H., & Krishantoro, K. (2021, April 7). The Importance of Job Satisfaction to improve Employee Performance. Technium Social Sciences Journal, 18, 367-377. https://doi.org/10.47577/tssj.v18i1.3059

Pudasaini, S., Schenk, L., Möckel, M., & Schneider, A. (2022, November 14). Work-life balance in physicians working in two emergency departments of a university hospital: Results of a qualitative focus group study. Plos One, 17(11), e0277523. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0277523

Rodríguez, F M M. (2022, August 1). Coping with Everyday Stress, Assessment and Relationships, Psychological Adjustment, Well-Being and Socioemotional Adjustment. https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe12080068

Simon, P D., & Salanga, M. G. C. (2021, May 15). Validation of the Five‐item Learning Climate Questionnaire as a measure of teacher autonomy support in the classroom. https://doi.org/10.1002/pits.22546

Villar, C., Muñoz-Aguado, L., & Benito-Osorio, D. (2014, January 1). The Impact of Family and Work-Life Balance Policies on the Performance of Spanish Listed Companies. M N Gement, 17(4), 214. https://doi.org/10.3917/mana.174.0214

Wu, J. & Zhou, J. (2020) "How the Configurations of Job Autonomy, Work–Family Interference, and Demographics Boost Job Satisfaction: an Empirical Study Using QCA," PubMed Central.

Yap, W. M. (2021). Work life balance and job-related affective wellbeing: moderating role of work autonomy.

Zakaria, Z., Don, Y., & Yaakob, M F M. (2021, June 1). Teachers’ well-being from the social psychological perspective. https://doi.org/10.11591/ijere.v10i2.21115

Zedeck, S., & Mosier, K. L. (1990). Work in the family and employing organization. American psychologist, 45(2), 240.

How to Cite
Bayucot, H. L., & Grana, L. B. (2024). A Generational Perspective of the Determinants of Work-Life Balance of Secondary School Teachers in Gingoog City Division: Basis for a Teacher Wellness Initiative. Randwick International of Education and Linguistics Science Journal, 5(2), 677-687. https://doi.org/10.47175/rielsj.v5i2.1001